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We talk about allergies | First aid

El Ministry of Health define the allergy as a special susceptibility of some people that causes them to respond in an exaggerated way to one or more external elements.

Normally we speak of elements before which the organism should not present any reaction, for that reason in many occasions the allergies appear "by surprise" and catch us off guard, not knowing well what happens or how to react.

  • The symptoms can be:


Itching of mouth, tongue, throat, lips ... May also present rashes, swelling ...

This type of symptoms are usually associated with the ingestion of food to which the patient is allergic, and may be present at first contact or in later contacts. The severity can vary.


Urticaria, Angioderma, dermatitis, itching or stinging of the eyes ...

This type of symptoms can be associated with others as secondary symptoms or they can be primary in allergies to animal hair, pollen, fungi, medicines, metals ...

They tend to be somewhat milder than the other symptoms and may be due to temporary allergies.


Vomiting, diarrhea, stool blood, marked rejection of a food, abdominal pain, weight loss or other digestive reactions.

They are usually primary symptoms caused by the ingestion of foods that cause allergy, and are usually associated with other secondary skin, oral and respiratory symptoms.


Sneezing, acute rhinitis, asthma, respiratory distress ...

They are usually primary symptoms in allergies to pollen, chemicals or animal hair and may also appear as secondary symptoms in food allergies.



The pollen of plants, especially grasses and olive trees; animal hair and dust mites are usually the allergens to which the highest percentage of the population is susceptible. These allergies appear at any time and do not usually subside with the passage of time.

Food allergies usually appear in childhood, although they can be diagnosed in adulthood, and can remit with age or see their symptoms increase. The most common food allergens are usually milk protein, lactose, eggs, fish, some fruits, seeds, gluten, soy, shellfish, dried fruits ... These types of allergies, if they are severe, can cause anaphylactic shocks with greater probability, so it is important to know the components of food.

The poisons of some insects such as wasps, bees and spiders, can also cause allergies, can be lethal in case of many simultaneous bites or occur in places very close to the bloodstream as neck ...

Allergies to medications, fungi, metals and chemicals, although somewhat less common, are also given and must be controlled, especially those of medicines, which, being ingested products, are also more susceptible to causing anaphylactic shocks.


It is a very acute and life-threatening allergic reaction, which is why the most important thing is observation, very early detection of symptoms and early attention, which may include:

  • deterioration of the general condition
  • asthma and respiratory difficulties that are increasing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Inflammation.
  • Hypotension
  • Loss of knowledge
  • Heart arrest.

If you suspect anaphylaxis contact 112 immediately, prepare to perform assisted breathing and locate adrenaline injection that will be administered with the permission of 112, so it is essential that, in case of severe allergies, the homes, work centers, education, sports ... have these adrenaline injections. 

In case it results in cardiac arrest locate defibrillator in case its use is necessary.


There are not many treatments in this regard, being more focused on palliating symptoms temporarily than eliminating allergies.

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